Home / Diseases / Macular dystrophy and macular degeneration

Macular dystrophy and macular degeneration

This is degeneration of cells of macular and adjoining retina, characterized by irreversible impairments of visual functions. The visual acuity is diminished. These changes may occur both in young age (vascular diseases, traumas, infections in the past, near-sightedness of a high degree) and in old age.

There are two forms of macular dystrophy:

  • dry form;
  • wet form.

A dry form is more benign in its course. Its treatment consists of courses of injections of vitamin preparations and medicines, improving vascular blood flow, in the area around eyes. The Ukrainian and European Societies of Ophthalmology recommend long-term (at least six months) intake of vitamins in pills, including lutein and zeaxanthin.

A wet form has the risk of rapid considerable visual impairment as well as the possibility of complications retinal detachment. The treatment of this form consists of courses of injections of corticosteroids, reducing the edema and inflammation, as well as vitamins and medicines for vessels, in the area around the eyes. In some cases the indications require laser coagulation of the retina.

Diagnostics of retinal diseases

All the acute and chronic retinal diseases require constant observations and treatment. Careless attitude to this pathology results in irreversible consequences ruptures and detachment.

  • The ophthalmoscopy of the fundus of the eye (performed by the doctor during a usual consultation).
  • The dilated eye examination of the fundus with the inspection of extreme periphery of the retina using contact and non-contact lenses. (Usually it is performed by the retinologist - a doctor, specializing in the problems of the fundus of the eye).
  • The examination using OCT (optic coherent tomograph) - a unique novel diagnostic apparatus, which allows receiving the image of the structure at the histological level and precisely determining the pathology area and its specificities.
  • Fundus retinal camera is the device, which photographs changes in the retina and follows these changes in dynamics.
  • Computer-assisted spheroperimetry is the examination, which detects the sensitivity of photoreceptors on different sites of the fundus of the eye.